Fiscal policy and gender employment
Akitoby and al. argue that in all G-7 countries, positive fiscal spending shocks contribute to gender equality during recessions, increasing female employment more than male. During booms, however, the impact on gender employment is less obvious and generally smaller than during recessions. In particular, they find that during recessions, a positive spending shock of 1 percent of GDP would, on average, lift female employment by 1 percent, while increasing male employment by 0.6 percent.
Countercyclical Fiscal Policy and Gender Employment: Evidence from the G-7 Countries
Authors: Bernardin Akitoby, Jiro Honda, Hiroaki Miyamoto
Children and gender inequality
Despite considerable gender convergence over time, substantial gender inequality persists in all countries. Using Danish administrative data from 1980-2013 and an event study approach, we show that most of the remaining gender inequality in earnings is due to children. The arrival of children creates a gender gap in earnings of around 20 percent in the long run, driven in roughly equal proportions by labor force participation, hours of work, and wage rates. Based on these estimates, we show that the fraction of gender inequality caused by child penalties has increased dramatically over time, from about 40 percent in 1980 to about 80 percent in 2013.
Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark
By: Jakob Egholt Søgaard, Henrik Kleven – University of Copenhagen, Princeton University
German vs French female employment patterns
In 2017 the employment rate of women aged 15 to 64 was 67.2% in France while in Germany it was 75.2%. Do German women work more than French? Périvier and Verdugo find that these statistics hide the fact that a large percentage of German women work part-time. When looking at the full-employment rate of women over 30 years of age, they find that in Germany this rate is 60% versus 65% in France. This difference also explains the gender gap in earnings which is 45% in Germany compared to 31% in France.
German women work less than French women
By: Hélène Périvier, Gregory Verdugo – OFCE